Looking into the books of fiqh is necessary for every Muslim looking to learn how to properly practice his or her faith. In this article I show you an excerpt from The Concise Presentation of The Fiqh of The Sunnah and The Noble Book, pertaining to the prayers.
When does the person actually catch the time of the Prayer?
Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said, "Whoever catches a rak'ah of the Morning prayer before the sun rises has caught the Morning prayer. Whoever catches a rak'ah of the Afternoon prayer before the sun sets has caught the Afternoon prayer." (Bukhari and Muslim, while Nasa'i has something similar)
This ruling is not particular for only the Morning and Afternoon prayers but general for every prayer. Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet (saws) said, "Whoever has caught a rak'ah of thee prayer has caught the prayer."
Making up missed prayers
Anas reported that the prophet of Allah (saws) said, Whoever forgets a prayer or sleeps through it, then the expiation is to perform it when he remembers it." (sahih)
Does the one who intentionally leaves a prayer until its time finishes make-up the prayer
Ibn Hazm said,
Allah has made for every prayer an appointed time with set limits. It begins at a specified time and becomes void at a specified time. There is no difference between one who prays it before its time and one who prays it after its time - as each of them has prayed it outside of its time. In addition, the making-up of a prayer is a legal issue and such legal rulings are not permissible except by Allah upon the tongue of His Messenger (saws). If making up an obligatory prayer that the one who intentionally has abandoned the prayer did not perform until its time was finished, neither Allah nor His Messenger (saws) would have failed to point that out, they also would not have forgotten to mention it and they also would not intentionally leave us without explaining the issue.
Allah says, ...Your Lord is never forgetful. (The Clear Qur'an 19:64)
Every Law that has not been brought in the Qur'an or Sunnah is void." (Ibn Hazm, al-Muhallah, vol. 2 p. 235
Book Excerpt: The Concise Presentation of The Fiqh of Sunnah And The Noble Book
By: Dr. Abdul-Azeem Badawi
Translated By: Jamaal Al-Din M. Zarabozo
Pgs: 86, 87